Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite

While the origins of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite directly connect with the Royal Royal Lodge of Kilwinning, the Order of St. Andrew, the Scottish Masters of St. Andrew, the Rite of Perfection or Heredom and the Lodges of Masonry Jacobean or Estonian masonry, the Rite, as we know it and practice it today, is not structured until May 31, 1801, when it was constituted in Charleston, South Carolina, the First Supreme Council of the Sovereign Great General Inspectors of the XXXIII and Last Degree of the Old and Accepted Scottish Rite. All the other legitimate Supreme Councils are born of this first Supreme Council. The one of Spain was constituted the year 1811 and is, by its antiquity, third of the world, after those of the United States and France.

The Old and Accepted Scottish Rite is structured in 33 degrees, of which the first three, which constitute the so-called Symbolic Masonry, depend on the Grand Lodges; making it the remaining 30, that is, from 4 to 33 both inclusive, of the Supreme Councils, one for each country.

Structuring of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is probably the most practiced and widespread Masonic rite in the world. It is the result of the evolution produced in the early nineteenth century of the Scottish system practiced in Paris at the beginning of the 1760s.

Appointed by the Latin Constitutions of the Order as “Antiquus Scoticus Ritus Acceptus,” or “Old and Accepted Scottish Rite,” is the title that has been generally adopted.

The first Scottish rite was the Scottish Philosophical Rite of the Mother Lodge of Marseilles (ca. 1750), of 18 degrees. After the first Philosophical Scottish Rite, appeared the Rite of Heredom or Perfection, composed by the Council of Emperors of East and West (Paris, 1758). Imported the Rite of Perfection of 25 degrees to America by the Hebrew Esteban Morín after receiving a patent of the rite, the number of degrees was extended, arising the Old and Accepted Scottish Rite of 33 degrees, with degrees like the Knight Kadosh.

Gathered in Charleston (South Carolina, USA), five Freemasons (John Mitchell, Federico Dalcho, Manuel de la Mota, Abraham Alejandro and Issac Auld) founded with Morín the Supreme Council of Masonry called the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. After the foundation of May 31, 1801, the first Supreme Council was made known by means of a circular issued on December 4, 1802.

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite arrived in Europe, and more specifically in France, at the hands of the Count of Grasse-Tilly, after obtaining a Charleston patent. Grasse-Tilly retouched some rituals and teachings and his work today constitutes more or less the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite that is known in Europe.

There are multiple versions of the A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·. and, even among them, the names of the degrees do not coincide at all. One usually works only in one of them, being the others “communicated”.

It is sense and mission of A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·., first, to make better masons every day, that is, to increase their intellectual, moral and above all masonic qualification through a rigorous, progressive, deep and essentially initiatory work; and secondly, that these more educated men and more Masons, that is, more men, impose with the force of their ideas and the example of their conduct, the principles of the Rite and Freemasonry in profane society.

It is, then, a Rite, the most widespread in the world, in which the most traditional symbolic elements are combined with a dynamics of certainly expressive functioning, which allows to develop together with a deep sense of fraternity, a keen sense of analysis rational that invites to focus life with criteria where the spiritual and the rational complement each other extraordinarily.

In the Lodges that use the A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·. the Laws that govern the Universe are symbolically represented and their works are carried out fundamentally in two lines that complement each other as the arms of the same body.

In the first place we have the Ritualistic Work or Practice of the Ritual that will allow, in its degrees of Apprentice, Companion and Teacher, through a series of ritualistic dramatizations of ancient symbology, to have a greater awareness of the Laws and precepts of nature and of the universe from which I would discover our simple but attentive observation.

In this sense, the ritual is structured and codified in such a way that it forms a common thread, which can not only transmit a clear and simple general message, but can activate subconscious and unconscious mechanisms that generate a high sense of transcendence and of the Great Architect of the Universe This is a Rite in which it has a major importance not only to the Practice of the Ritual but also to its spiritual, psychological and conceptual assimilation.

Secondly, within the works of the Lodge, emphasis is also placed on Masonic Works of an intellectual nature. The Works are presented in writing, on a plate or layout and, once read in the Tenida, are treated orally and colloquially between the brothers. In this way, through the different opinions or opinions provided, a profound perception of the subject dealt with is obtained, with the consequent enrichment and Masonic formation that will invariably bear fruit in any field or situation.

Following the eminently dynamic spirit of the Lodges of A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·., as a continuation of the Meeting, an important part is the corresponding fraternal lunch or dinner held outside the Lodges. It is an appropriate space where its members interrelate and develops, if possible to a greater extent, the deep sense of the Fraternity that exists among all the Brothers.

Reflecting on the meaning and mission of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is as much as analyzing its ontology and the applicability and projection of its essence in the Society.

It is difficult to find a Rite in which Spiritualism, Humanism and Freedom, which are the three columns that support Scottishism, are so harmoniously harmonized. Because the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is a traditional and initiatory Rite based on these three elements and based on the deep Masonic fraternity.

The Rite allows, and this would be its first sense, that an alliance of free men works for the spiritual, moral, intellectual and material progress of Humanity. Consequently, the spiritual vocation of A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·., leads to a philanthropic humanism.

Spiritualism, Humanism, Fraternity, Philanthropy, are not empty content concepts for the Scottish masons. Our spirituality is not given to us as if it were a grace, humanism does not appear in us as an innate virtue, fraternity is not spontaneous. These Masonic virtues are reached through individual and collective effort, using an initiatory and progressive tradition (the Rite is a method) that enables a spirituality open to freedom, to humanism, to equality and to an authentic universal fraternity among men. .

It must be said that A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·. It is as traditional as liberal. A Rite that broke with the initiatory tradition or that did not proclaim freedom, and was therefore dogmatic, would in both cases be Masonic.

The mission of A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·. It is always build. To build the supreme building of an initiatory order, to build man and build his fraternity, in short to make better Masons.

The Scottish Rite implies in its ideal a perfect synthesis between the spiritualist humanism of traditional philosophy and modern anthropological humanism.

Although the profane world strives to confront concepts such as universality and difference, the Scottish freemasons can proclaim that without respect for differences, universalism can degenerate into totalitarianism, and that, without the demand for universal values ​​(that is, without a horizon of universalism), Right to the difference could end in a warlike confrontation. That is why it is always important to maintain the universal vocation of Freemasonry.

The Scottish philosophy (which, as we have pointed out, is a perfect synthesis between spiritualism and humanism) aims to highlight its universalist message of freedom and tolerance against all fanaticism, against religious fundamentalism and against xenophobic racism. Because the principles of A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·. are not reduced to pure theoretical abstraction, but they have to project themselves into the profane world through the individual work and example that the Scottish freemasons exercise in the social, labor, etc. environment, to which each of them belongs.

In the intellectual sphere, intelligence and science are worshiped, using reason as a way of accessing the truth and introducing man into a relativist vision in the face of all dogmatic fanaticism.

As for beliefs, our Rite, which is respectful of all religions, defends religious and cult freedom and the independence of political power over religious.

As we can see there is a concrete baggage in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Because this is a method, a means a vehicle for the perfective learning of the Mason and for the transmission of intellectual contents. The A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·. is not only form but also bottom, both must be justly balanced. A Rite that reduced the formal elements would not be perfect, but to believe that the form is everything, that is to say, to empty the Rite of material content, reducing it to a formal ceremony would suppose an ontological alteration of it. The form must never replace, let alone exclude the background, the thought, the deep and essential content of the Rite.

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite consists of 33 degrees, of which the first three, which constitute the so-called Symbolic Masonry, depend on the Grand Lodges, making it the remaining 30 of the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree and the Last.

Degrees of A.·.A.·.S.·.R.·.:

1. Entered Apprentice.
2. Fellowcraft.
3. Master Mason.
4. Secret Master.
5. Perfect Master.
6. Intimate Secretary.
7. Provost and Judge or Irish Master.
8. Intendant of the Building or Master of Israel.
9. Elected Knight of the Nine,
10. Elu of the Fifteen (Illustriuos Elect of the Fifteen).
11. Sublime Knight Elect of Twelve.
12. Master Architect.
13. Royal Arch of Solomon.
14. Grand Elect, Perfect and Sublime Mason
15. Knight of the East, of the Sword, or of the Eagle.
16. Prince of Jerusalem.
17. Knight of the East and the West.
18. Knight Rose Croix
19. Grand Pontiff
20. Master of the Symbolic Lodge
21. Noachite, or Prussian Knight.
22. Knight Royal Axe, Prince of Libanus.
23. Chief of the Tabernacle.
24. Prince of the Tabernacle.
25. Knight of the Brazen Serpent.
26. Prince of Merci, or Scottish Trinitarian.
27. Knight Commander of the Temple
28. Knight of the Sun, or Prince Adept.
29. Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew.
30. Knight of Kadosh, or Knight of the White and Black Eagle
31. Inspector Inquisitor.
32. Master of the Royal Secret.
33. Commander of the Court of Honour

Legendary origins of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite

Bannockburn

On June 24, 1314, summer solstice in the northern hemisphere, dawned fresh and misty in the Scottish town of Bannockburn. At nine o’clock in the morning and with the sun high, both armies had taken a combat stance and after a final negotiation more ritual than practice, the English archers began the battle that lasted almost six hours.

Near and at three o’clock in the afternoon, the troops of the androgynous Edward II, King of England and son-in-law of Philip IV, the beautiful one of France (1), left the battlefield, allowing the fierce Scotsmen to celebrate the victory for a long time, no longer of a battle, but that of a hard war of independence that had just been achieved under the leadership of its sovereign Robert de Bruce, Robert I of Scotland.

That battle, on such a symbolic date, would have repercussions not only on the political map of ancient Albion, but also on the evolution of Freemasonry in general and of Scottism in particular, because, as a result of the triumph of the Scots, they gave the battle of Bannockburn, two very important events occurred from the point of view of the history of Masonry, namely the creation of the Order of St. Andrew and the beginning of the Stuart dynasty.

After the battle, a grateful Bruce Robert created the Order of the Knights of St. Andrew, being its first members several hundred Knights of the Temple, decisive action that day of glory of the Scottish weapons. Among these experienced warriors there were many Scottish members of the Order of the Temple, but it is also true that a good number of them were French Knights of the Order of the Temple who had arrived in Scotland fleeing the persecution, genocide we would say today, unleashed against they for the King of France (Philip IV, the beautiful) and Pope Clement V.

The creation of the Order of Saint Andrew allowed warrior monks to continue to exist legally, protected by a legitimate king, and as we shall see later was linked to the emergence, later, of some of the Scottish Rite degrees.

At the Battle of Bannockburn, a friend and comrade-in-arms of the king, named Walter, also had an outstanding performance. Walter was a descendant of Alan Fitzfiaald, a Viking dead in 1114. He took Walter, for himself and his descendants, the name of his function, Stewart, who designated then, in the bosom of the nobility, the position of steward (2). The French form Stuart was adopted in 1562 by one of his descendants, the famous Mary Stuart, on his return from France.

Walter Stewart was the most loyal collaborator and supporter of King Robert I of Scotland, marrying in 1315 his daughter, Princess Marjorie, and succeeding him as sovereign of Scotland on the king’s death. Thus began the Stuart dynasty, which maintained very close relations with the operative Freemasonry of its time, to the point that several sovereigns of this family were initiated and elevated to the supreme office of Grand Master. As an interesting detail we note that the arms of the Stuart of Lennox, appear in the masonic apron of the Scottish Masters of the Early Grand Scottish Rite or Primitive Scottish Rite.

Kilwinning

After its formation in 1717, the Grand Lodge of London quickly took on considerable importance. It incorporated prominent characters and displayed great activity even beyond the boundaries of England. Under his auspices, the freemasons of Ireland founded a Grand Lodge in 1729 and those of Scotland in 1736 constituted the Grand Lodge of St. John of Scotland. For those interested in the history of Spanish Masonry, we will remember that the first Lodge constituted outside of England, in accordance with the Constitutions known as Anderson and with a Patent Letter from the Grand Lodge of London, was the Lodge Matritense or the Three Flowers de Lis (3), established in Madrid, by the Duke of Wharton, on February 15, 1728. He would receive the Patent Letter a year later and appear in the register of the United Grand Lodge of England with the number 50 and the name of Lodge French Arms. The Founding Act is preserved in the museum of the United Grand Lodge of England.

Despite the founding of the Grand Lodge of St John of Scotland, the Royal Lodge of Kilwinning, which existed since 1150, continued its independent life. However, after friction with the Grand Lodge of St. John of Scotland, the Royal Kilwinning moved in 1743 its headquarters to Edinburgh, where it was established under the title of Royal Grand Lodge and Grand Sovereign Chapter of the Order of Heredom of Kilwinning and of the Knights Rosa Cruces, founding around them Lodges and Chapters under his obedience.

This split between the two Grand Lodges of Scotland, had a great importance, it marks the separation into two branches of Freemasonry: On the one hand the English system with its three degrees, as practiced in the Grand Lodge of England and its foundations ; on the other hand that of the Royal Grand Lodge of Kilwinning, whose system of degrees will later form the branch of Freemasonry that has been called Scottish, and of which the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite takes its true origins and most of your degrees.

Kilwinning is a small town and an Aijrshire market, located on the right bank of the Garnock River, 24 miles southwest of Glasgow. Now in ruins, the abbey had been one of the richest in Scotland. Founded around 1140 by Benedictine monks of the Order of Thirion, called by Hugues de Morville, Lord of Cunningham; It was dedicated to St. Winnin who had lived in that region in the eighth century, giving his name to the nearby village.

Kilwinning, according to tradition, is the cradle of Scottish Freemasonry; the first Lodge was founded there by the “stonemasons” who came from abroad to build the abbey; it is considered as the Mother Lodge of Scotland.

In the era of King Robert of Bruce, around 1314, this Lodge admitted as “accepted masons” to the Knights Templar fleeing the persecution unleashed by the King of France and Pope Clement V. Knights, as was said before, contributed to the victory of king Robert I in Bannockburn, being awarded with the creation of the Order of Saint Andrew of Mount Cardo, which, later, merged with the Order of Heredom, acquiring the Lodge the consideration of Royal Lodge.

The Freemason Kings

Let’s go back to the Stuarts, the Freemason kings of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, who reigned over all of Britain, since they were kings of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland:

James I of England and I SAW of Scotland, been born in Edinburgh in 1566 and died in Theobald Park in 1625, was son of two cousins: Maria Estuardo and Enrique Estuardo de Lennox, Lord Darnley. James I was King of England after Elizabeth I. Devout Anglican, persecuted equally Catholics and Protestants of the Presbyterian sect. Being a great connoisseur of esotericism, he secretly favored the Rosicrucian assemblies of the tavern of La Sirena in London. (4)

In 1593 he created the Rosa Cruz Real, with thirty-two knights of the Order of San Andrés del Cardo, founded as we saw in 1314 by Robert I of Scotland, and restored by his father, James V of Scotland, in 1540. Crowned in 1603 King of England, on the death of Elizabeth I, reigned over England and Scotland with the name of James I. The Scottish operative masons then had the right to elect a new Grand Master, since James I became the Grand Master of English operating masons.

Jacobo I married with Ana of Denmark, marriage of which Carlos I was born in Dunferline, Scotland, the 19 of November of 1600, king who would die beheaded in London the 30 of January of 1649, victim of the cruelty of Cromwell. Carlos I married in 1625 with Enriqueta de Francia, sister of Luis XIII and daughter of Enrique IV. Carlos I was a great gentleman, courteous, liberal, divided between the militant Catholicism of his wife and his role as head of the Anglican Church, religion of the State from Eduardo VIII. Carlos I was a mystic. During his reign, in 1645, the Invisible College was formed in London, born of the Rosae Crucis of 1610, by the work of Boyle, Locke and Sir Wren.

In 1633 he ordered John Milne, his master builder, to build, with the collaboration of John Bartonn, in the garden of the Hollyrod Palace, in Edinburgh, the mysterious “solar clock” described by Fulcanelli (5). In fact, this emblematic icosahedron of the Great Work, would be linked by its decoration not only to Carlos I, his wife and his young son, but also to the Order of San Andrés del Cardo. It would reveal at the same time the march of the Sun of the Sages, the Seal of Wisdom of the Alchemists (hence its solar clock esotericism) and the mysterious Baphomet of the Knights of the Temple, which in Scotland had become the Order of Saint Andrew of Cardo on June 24, 1314, after the victory of Bannockburn.

The hatred of the Presbyterians will propitiate the revolution of 1649, and Cromwell, fanatic where there have been them, will behead Charles I. Charles II, his firstborn, thus became king of law, exiling himself to France with his mother Henriette of France, his sister Enriqueta of England (6), his court, his armies and, naturally, the Lodges, who also moved to French exile.

In 1658 the intolerant Cromwell died and, the following year, General Monck, head of the Scottish army, member of the Operational Grand Lodge of Edinburgh as an accepted Mason, was made Knight of Saint Andrew. In the Anglo-Scottish operating Masonry, the Order of the Scottish Teachers of Saint Andrew is formed, which groups the supporters of the Stuarts who have been received as accepted masons, a nucleus that will remain practically secret, but which will be the focus of the that will radiate the future Military Lodges of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, under James II.

In 1660 Carlos II rises to the throne of England thanks to the coup of General Monck. In 1662 he created the famous Royal Society, derived from the Invisible College.

Jacob II, his brother, formerly Duke of York, was born in London in 1633 and died in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1701. Captured in 1646 by Cromwell’s troops, he managed to escape and flee to Holland. From 1648 to 1660, date of the restoration of the Stuarts, he lived in France. (7) During his exile, in Saint Germain en Laye, the officers and non-commissioned officers of the Scottish and Irish regiments who have faithfully followed him, will create the first Military Lodges, source of French Freemasonry and one of the roots of the Ancient Scottish Rite and Accepted. It will be the famous Jacobean Freemasonry or Fabled Masonry. In this small court, gentlemen affiliated to the Order of the Scottish Masters, constituted in London in 1659, they founded, under the royal patronage, the Order of the Scottish Masters of San Andrés, already openly Masonic exteriorization of the Order of San Andrés del Cardo , created by Robert de Bruce three and a half centuries before. The ritual they used, in a double sense, symbolized the reconstruction of the temple in Jerusalem by Zerubbabel, but also the restoration of the Stuarts.

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite

In Charleston, South Carolina, on May 31, 1801, the First Supreme Council of the Sovereigns Great General Inspectors of the XXXIII and last degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was founded. In 1802, this Supreme Council issued a circular, also known in the Masonic world as the “speech of Dalcho”, for being Dr. Frederick Dalcho who presided over the editorial committee. From this document it is worth highlighting the following:

“Through our ancient archives we are informed of the constitution of the Sublime and Ineffable degrees of Freemasonry in Scotland, in France and in Prussia, after the Crusades. But due to circumstances that are unknown to us, after the year 1658 they fell into oblivion, until in 1744 a gentleman from Scotland came to visit France and established a Lodge of Perfection in Bordeaux. “

When this gentleman came from Scotland, the Count of Clermont, Louis de Borbon, prince of royal blood and grandson of Louis XIV, held the Grand Master in France (8). It is under his benign government (1743-1771) that the Scots or Scottish degrees (9) burst forth in France. Everything indicates that the Scottish Master, who appeared in France in 1743, came from England (10). Indeed, since 1733 it had appeared within the English Grand Lodge, a Lodge of Scotch Mason’s working in London and of which it is known was not composed of Scots; in 1735 a lodge of Scotch Masters appears in Bath, that derived to the Real Arch in 1744, of which it is said that it was a rudimentary form. In both the continent, he would have derived to the Scottish Master and his offspring.

In those years, other Rites of Perfection arose in France. The Rite of Heredom or Perfection, composed of 25 degrees, would have arisen in Paris in 1758 as a detachment from the Clermont chapter (11)

He can not fail to mention the Knight Ramsay (12), preceptor of Charles Stuart and Grand Orator of the Order in France. His famous speech is considered as a fundamental testimony about the esoteric thought existing in the “high degrees” of the Scottish era, to the point that it has come to attribute to the discourse the origin of these degrees, and not only be the expression of a current already existing. (13)

In France, in the terminology of the eighteenth century, a Scottish Lodge was what we now call a Lodge of Perfection, that is, a Lodge of degrees superior to the 3rd of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. At that time the members of these Lodges had to be part of a Symbolic Regular Lodge (grades 1 to 3) and, also, have held one of their three main positions. It is at that time when it was customary to designate the ordinary Lodges as blue or English lodges, the former by the color of the master’s cord, while the color of the Scottish masters is red.

The Great Constitutions, of 1786, of the Scottish Rite and Accepted, in its introductory and declaratory part, which culminates with Frederick of Prussia, establish the following:

“These reasons and others, no less serious, impel us to gather in a single Masonic body all the Rites of the Scottish Rite, whose doctrines are generally accepted in the essential, as the old institutions that are directed to a common center and that they are but the main branches of the same tree, differ only in their formulas, already well known and which can be so easily reconciled. These Rites are those known under the different names of the Old Rite, that of Heredom or Hairdom, that of the East of Kilwinning, Saint Andrew, Emperors of East and West, Princes of the Royal Secret or of Perfection, the Philosophical Rite, and the most modern of all, known as primitive Rite. Adopting then, as the basis of our conservative reform, the title of the first of these rites and the number of degrees of the last hierarchy, we declare that now and in the future, they are and will remain united in a single Order, that professing the dogma and the pure doctrine of ancient Freemasonry, it comprises all the systems of the Scottish Rite united into one, under the title of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. “

The history and the legend

Frederick the Great in his Constitutions says that Heredom and Kilwinning are among those who shaped the Old and Accepted Scottish Rite. Today nobody disputes that many Templars took refuge in Scotland, after the beginning of the persecution in France. The characteristics of the aforementioned Orders, in an era where there was little documentation and much secrecy, do not allow direct documentary evidence to be used, but there are evidences that, although they do not prove, establish reasonable certainties that constitute the ancestry of the current Scotism. In this respect and as certain indications, the “chivalrous” characteristic of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the traditions of the Rite and a certain coherent sequence of Orders of Cavalry that were permanently renewed through the centuries by the Scottish Freemason kings are to be emphasized more representative.

That is why we began this work in that distant solstice of San Juan in 1314 at Bannockburn. Because what happened there opened the door of history and the legend to several of the most conspicuous protagonists of the saga and the tradition of Escocismo and Masonería: the members of the Order of San Andrés del Cardo and the freemason kings of the dynasty Stuart

NOTES

(1) Philip I of France, called the beautiful, in union and complicity with Pope Clement V, weaved the plot that led to the banning of the Order of the Temple, the seizure of their property and the murder of their main leaders. The end was none other than seizing the goods and possessions of the Temple and enhancing the much more docile Order of Malta.
(2) Seneschal: Chief or head of the nobility, which he ruled, especially in war.
(3) It is known by the Lodge Name of the Three Fleur de Lis following the custom of the time of nominating the Lodges for the one in the place where they met. The Matritense did it in the Fonda de las Tres Flores de Lis, located in the street Ancha de San Bernardo number 17, in Madrid.
(4) In 1590 he sailed for Scania, north of Sweden, to contact Tycho Brahe at his observatory in Uranienborg. Tycho Brahe, astronomer and astrologer, very fond of magic, was the author of the “Magic Calendar” that bears his name. Upon returning from Uranienborg, James I stopped to visit William IV the Wise, landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, protector of Tycho Brahe and related to the Rosicrucians of the time. Back in England, he published his capital work: Daemonologiae hoc est adversus incantationem sive magic institution auctore serenissime potentissimio- que Principe.
(5) Fulcanelli. Demeures philosophales (Omnium litteraire, Paris, 1960, 11, page 161).
(6) future wife of Felipe de Orleáns, Monsieur, brother of Luis XIV
(7) Appointed a great admiral, he distinguished himself in the struggle against the Dutch, whom he snatched from New Amsterdam, baptized after New York in memory of his victory. Converted to Catholicism in 1672, a year before his marriage to Maria of Modena (condition imposed for this marriage), the hostility of the Whigs was attracted, but Parliament failed in its attempts to exclude him from the succession to the throne.
(8) He was also Abbot of Saint Germain des Prés, member of the French Academy and with papal dispensation, commander of the armies of the King in Germany.
(9) Etienne Gout, 33, “The genesis of French Escocismo”, magazine ORDO AB CHAO 1994, translation of the I \ P \ H \ Diego Rodríguez Mariño.
(10) Ibid.
(11) Valentín Alvarez “Old and Accepted Scottish Rite and its relationship with other rites” 1999.
(12) Andrew Michael Ramsay was born in 1686 in Ayr, Scotland, and died in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, in 1743. He was preceptor of great families: Wemyss, Sassenage, Stuart (Rome, 1724), Château-Thierry , Bouillon. Made Knight of S. Lazaro by the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France and Grand Master of that Order, in 1723. Writer, is author among other works of The Philosophical principles of natural and revealed religion unfolded in geometrical order, 1748.
(13) The first speech was delivered in 1736 in the Parisian lodge St Thomas N ° 1, first Lodge founded in France by English nobles in 1725, two of which would be, after the Duke of Wharton, the first Grand Masters of Masonry in that country.
The 2nd speech (1737) was before a general assembly of the French Order.

 

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for Spain

The first Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree for Spain and its dependencies overseas, was established in Spain in 1808 by King Joseph I, sovereign imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte, after the resignation of the Crown by the Spanish Bourbons. José Bonaparte was Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France. This Supreme Council dissolved when the king was forced to leave Spanish territory in 1813, after the triumph of the Spaniards loyal to the Cortes of Cádiz.

At the beginning of 1811, the Marquis of Clermont-Tonnerre, as a member of the Supreme Council of France, formed in Spain philosophical bodies that worked until the XXXII degree of the Scottish Rite. On July 4, 1811, with patents issued for this purpose by the Supreme Council of Charleston, of which he had been founder, the Count of Grasse-Tilly regularly constituted the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree for Spain and its dependencies, being named I. · P. ·. H. ·. Miguel José de Azanza Sovereign Grand Commander.

The members of the Supreme Council during the first absolutist reaction of Fernando VII did not interrupt the Masonic works in Spain, meeting clandestinely and putting their effort in the reconquest of freedoms.

The military rebellion that began in Cabezas de San Juan forced Ferdinand VII to reestablish the Constitution of 1812. With this motive, Freemasonry entered an era of tranquility that favored its free unfolding. The Sovereign Grand Commander Agustín Argüelles, who also played the Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Spain, abdicated the position and was replaced by the I. · .P. · .H. ·. Antonio Pérez de Tudela.

After the invasion of Spain by the French armies under the agreements of the Holy Alliance, a new absolutist reaction ensued in 1823, having to take refuge in England the Sovereign Grand Commander and some other members of the Supreme Council, where they found the generous hospitality of English Masonry The repression of Fernando VII reached terrible characters because the Real Cell dictated in Sacedón in 1824 considered like crime of lese majesty to be freemason. The royal order of October 9, 1824, condemned to death anyone who was recognized as a Mason or commoner. Among the victims of the cruel repression that were counted by thousands perished the Masonic generals Juan Martín, the Empecinado, Torrijos, and Lacy.

At the end of 1829 the persecutions ceased and the Sovereign Grand Commander, the Infante D. Francisco de Paula de Borbón, regrouped the Lodges. In 1833, after the death of Ferdinand VII, Queen María Cristina began to act as reigning governor, many of the members of the Supreme Council being able to return to Spain.

Finally, in 1843, after so many persecutions, Spanish Masonry could be reorganized and more than 300 lodges came to exist. In 1846, the Infante Don Francisco had to expatriate in order to get rid of the persecutions that General Narváez and his clerical reaction made him object to. After 1856 Spanish Masonry was again persecuted and forced to act clandestinely. Neither the Supreme Council nor the Grand Orient could develop their jobs and the Philippine Islands were filled with Freemasons exiled by Narvaez.

The revolution of 1868 that dethroned Queen Isabel II allowed Spanish Masonry and the Supreme Council, chaired by M. · .P. · .H. ·. Carlos Celestino Mañan and Clark, resume their activities. In the philosophical bodies were HH. as prominent as the generals: Serrano, Prim, Duke of the Tower, Count of Reus; and the politicians Manuel Becerra, Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, Nicolás María Rivero and Juan Moreno who were several times deputies and even ministers.

In October 1868, the Supreme Council presented to the Provisional Government a legislative program of Masonic inspiration, consisting of fourteen propositions, which among other reforms included the following: freedom of worship, suppression of religious orders, secularization of cemeteries, subjection of the clergy to military service, civil marriage, etc. The program deserved to be taken care of by the Government.

Shortly before the Savoyard monarchy and taking advantage of the temporary absence of the Sovereign Grand Commander Mañan, several members of the Supreme Council elected as Sovereign Grand Commander the H. ·. Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla. The split produced within the Supreme Council as a result of these events, caused great confusion in Spanish Freemasonry. To remedy it, the high Masonic spirit of the HH was appealed. Mañan and Zorrilla who responded in fraternal terms to the request. The H.·. Ruiz Zorrilla is September of 1873 resigned all his Masonic offices.

He was succeeded by H. ·. Carvajal who immediately yielded to H. ·. Mañan, who had resigned his positions at the same time as Ruiz Zorilla trying to find Masonic conciliation. Elections were held on September 18, 1873, and Brother H. Commander was elected as Sovereign Grand Commander. José de Carvajal, distinguished lawyer and minister of the Spanish Republic.

It proceeded then to a complete reorganization of the philosophical and symbolic bodies, being given, in 1869, the first public manifestations of the Spanish Masonic family on the occasion of the burial of the H. ·. Brigadier Escalante and later on the occasion of those of the Infante Don Enrique and General Prim.

When the Bourbon monarchy was restored in the person of Alfonso XII, the disunity in the Spanish Masonic family spread again, and there were two Supreme Irregular Councils, in addition to the Supreme Regular Council. This confusing situation meant that no Spanish representation could attend the international meeting of Supreme Councils held in Lausanne in 1876.

In 1881 the Supreme Councils presided over by Praxedes Mateo Sagasta and Antonio Romero Ortiz were finally merged, and the latter was left as the only legitimate and regular Grand Sovereign Commander, being recognized in that capacity in 1882 by M. · .P. · .H . Albert Pike Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States and successively by the Supreme Councils of Scotland, Ireland, Greece, etc.

On January 20, 1884, M. · .P. · .H. ·. Antonio Romero Ortiz. Then, for the first and only time in the history of the Supreme Council, to provide the position of Sovereign Grand Commander who, at that time, had attached the Great Mastery of the symbolic Grand Orient, was called to direct election by the Masonic people. The election took place on August 15, 1884 and its result, which is curious to record, was as follows: Manuel Becerra, 2,237 votes; Emilio Castelar, 605; Manuel Ruiz Zorilla, 478; Manuel del Llano Persi, 296; José María Beranger, 118; Juan Téllez Vicent, 23; Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, 12; Victor Balaguer, 5; Sergio Martín del Bosch, 4; José Carvajal, 2; Juan Utor Fernández, e; Sebastian Salvador, Francisco Pí and Margall, Buenaventura Roignet and José María Panzano one vote each.

When the Sovereign Grand Commander Manuel Becerra resigned in 1889 in favor of the Lieutenant Grand Commander Ignacio Rosas, a new era of confusion occurred when he wanted to take away his autonomy from Symbolism. On February 8, 1889, it was agreed to merge the two symbolic obediences of the Grand Orient of Spain and the Grand National Orient. Thus was born the Spanish Grand Orient under the direction of H. ·. Miguel Morayta Sagrario who was also named Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council in substitution of H. ·. Manuel Becerra

At the advent of the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera (September 13, 1923), Spanish Masonry was again in a difficult situation. His workshops had to accentuate the clandestine work of Masonic works. On April 1, 1924 it was agreed, through a solemn and written agreement, stipulated among themselves the Grand Symbolic Federal Council of the Spanish Grand Orient and the Supreme Council of Spain, to reform the Statutes of the Supreme Council so that they would be recognized in them. independence of symbolism; declare the agreements of 1922 regarding the autonomy of the Regional Grand Lodges subsisting and recognize their respective authority, respectively, of the Spanish Grand Orient over the first three symbolic degrees and of the Supreme Council of Spain on the so-called philosophical degrees, that is to say from IV to XXXIII.

On April 14, 1931, when the monarchy was overthrown and the Second Republic was established, the new laws allowed Spanish Masonry to work with greater security and efficiency. They were active members of the Supreme Council, at that time, the II. · .PP. · .HH. ·. Augusto Barcia, Diego Martínez Barrio, Angel Rizo, Demófilo de Buen, Fermin Zayas, José Boch, Evelio Torent, José Estruch, Manuel Nieto, Antonio Montaner, Manuel Portela Valladares, Francisco Soto Mas, Juan Manuel Iniesta, Isidro Sánchez Martínez, Miguel de Benavides, Pedro Las Heras and Julio Hernández.

On July 18, 1936 there was the uprising of several generals who took up arms against the democratic regime of the Second Republic. In the area of ​​Spain dominated by the insurgents a systematic massacre was practiced not only of freemasons but of many unhappy, moderate liberals who seemed suspected of belonging or having belonged to Freemasonry.

For Spanish Masonry the civil war of 1936 to 1939 was catastrophic. During its course and later the persecution against the Freemasonry returned, arriving at giving it legislative form. Thus, on March 1, 1940, the so-called Law of Repression of Freemasonry and Communism was enacted, in which two ideologies that have no relationship of philosophical or organic affinity are arbitrarily equated to repressive effects. Being, in addition, as it is, persecuted Masonry in the countries where communist regimes have been established.

As a result of the Spanish Civil War and the fierce persecution unleashed against Freemasonry, many Freemasons were forced to leave Spain.

The Supreme Council of Mexico, by granting Fraternal Asylum to that of Spain, established, together with that of England in the nineteenth century, a precedent of Masonic jurisprudence inspired by the highest sense of the Fraternity.

The granting of the Asylum to the Supreme Council of Spain was approved by the Extraordinary General Session of the Supreme Council of Mexico, held on February 3, 1943, and the corresponding Decree was issued.

In 1977, with the end of the dictatorship, the Supreme Council of Spain ended its forced exile, returning to the fatherland. At present, it maintains agreements of mutual recognition and friendship with the Grand Lodge of Spain, depending on this grades 1, 2 and 3, and the Supreme Council grades 4 to 33, both inclusive.